Is the study of the physical and the biological aspects of the ocean. It is an Earth science covering a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.
To be safe, efficient, and environmentally sound, any marine development project requires information about water depth, the shape of the sea floor and coastline, the location of possible obstructions, and other physical features of water bodies, such as their structure and movement. Oceanographic surveying is the primary method of obtaining this baseline data. Oceanographic surveys can provide characterisation of a specific offshore site or a more regional marine environment.